Shi'ite Scholars in the Field of Principles of Jurisprudence(Usul-ul-Fiqh)

From Among The Holy Imams(A.S.)

The first one to speak about jurisprudence in Islam was Imam Ali bin Abi Talib(A.S.). He dictated sixty different kinds of studies connected with the Holy Qur'an. He mentioned that in the Qur'an there were verses which abrogated the others and these which were abrogated (Nasikh and Mansukh) : that there were verses clear in their meaning (Muhkam) and others which were not (mutashabah) and that there were verses which had their particular application and other having general application. These principles were the foundation stone of all discussions relating to this branch of knowledge.
Imam Muhammad al-Baqir(A.S.) and Imam Ja'far Sadiq(A.S.) were the foremost after Amir-ul-Mu'minin(A.S.) to open the gate of Principles of Jurisprudence. Imam Shafi'i came long after them. Both of them explained their companions the most important issues relating to jurisprudence. Imam Ja'far Sadiq(A.S.) threw light on the following issues:
i) conditions and pre-requisites of Ijtihad;
ii) permission of following another person (Taqlid);
iii) denotative value of the apparent meaning of words;
iv) permissibility of action according to the general and absolute senses, etc.;
v) permissibility of framing secondary injunctions and finding out secondary rule from the basic principles;
vi) action;
vvi) permissibility of reporting the Traditions according to the meaning and not the words (indirect narration)
vvvi) unpermissibility of imposing an action upon a person which is far beyond his capacity;
ix) obligation to refrain from that which is doubtful;
x) admissibility of reasoning with reference to a precedent and non-admissibility of analogous inferences (guess work) that is al-Qiyas;
Similarly bout Imam Muhammad al-Baqir(A.S.) and Imam Ja'far Sadiq(A.S.) clarified the following issues relating to the Principles of Jurisprudence.
i) arriving at a decision in case of the doubtful despite the absence clear-cut information.
ii) dealing with contradictory informations, which issue relates to striking and balance and exercising one's discretion and preference;
Similarly, Imam Muhammad al-Baqir(A.S.), Imam Ja'far Sadiq(A.S.) and Imam Musa al-Kazim(A.S.) clarified that it is obligatory to refer to the Holy Qur'an and the Sunnah in order to deduce results and give judgments, as well as that the apparent meaning are sufficient for the sake of reasoning and admissible. Imam Sadiq(A.S.) and Imam al-Kazim(A.S.) prohibited the use of analogy and guess-work in arriving at judgments. In the same way, Imam Sadiq(A.S.) and Imam Reza(A.S.) declared it permissible to act in accordance with the general and the absolute as well as admissibility of framing rules on the basis of fundamental principles and abstract rules. Imam Ali al-Hadi(A.S.) and Imam al-Hasan al-'Askari(A.S.) gave their judgment on the admissibility of one circumstancial evidence information which is authentic. Similarly, Imam al-Mahdi(A.S.) declared the admissibility of circumstancial evidence and so on and so forth.
Other Than Imams.
Some of our contemporary writers have said that the first person to distinguish himself in writing down these discussions in the form of a book was Hishan bin al-Hakam, a student of Imam Ja'far Sadiq(A.S.) who composed a book, titled, Kitab-ul-Alfaz Wa Mabahithiha, which is one of the important discussion of this branch of studies.
Our opinion is that there has been mentioned a book as referred to above among the books written by Hisham but its topic is not known. It cannot said as to whether this book deals with the discussion of the words which belongs to the field of Jurisprudence or not. Nor does the statements of our contemporaries give any indication to this effect. But the correct position is that the first one to put down these discussions to book-form was Yunis bin Abdur Rahman who was an ally to Yaqtin family. He wrote a book titled Ikhtilaf-ul-Hadith which deals with exactly in jurisprudence that is the question of balancing the views which are contradictory and exercising one's discretion in giving a judgment. This is a part of the discussions relating to the Principles of Jurisprudence. He died in the beginning of the third century.
Other notable figures who did work in this field are as described below:
1. Ahmad bin Muhammad bin Khalid al-Barqi wrote a book on contradictory opinions and question of giving judgment. He died in 274 A.H.
2. Muhammad bin Abdur-Rahman bin Qibbah ar-Razi has expressed his ideas on the availability of one piece of evidence which is quite known. He died in the beginning of the fourth century.
3. Muhammad bin Muhammad bin an-Nu'man known as Al-Mufid.
He has a small book on Ilm-Usul which is printed.
4. Ash-Sharif Murtada Alam-ul-Huda Ali bin al-Husain.
Allama has described him in Al-Khullasah as a man of all arts whose position is admitted by all. He was profound in knowledge and different studies, which included the knowledge of Usul-ul-Fiqh (principles of Jurisprudence) which is a way to the Principles of Law (Shari'ah). His ideas and opinions are quite well known in the books of both the Sunnite and the Shi'ite writers. He died in 436 A.H.
5. Ash-Shaikh Abu Ja'far Muhmmad bin al-Husain at-Tusi
He is called Shaikh-ut-Ta'ifah or simply as Ash-Shaikh. A -number of his books on the Principles are found in print. He died in 460 A.H.
6. Sadid-ud-Din Mahmud bin Ali al-Humsi was also one of the scholars who were known for knowledge of Usul. He died during the sixth century.
7. Al-Muhaqqiq Ja'far bin Yayha bin Sa'id al-Hilli
He is the author of Ma'arij-ul-Wusul Ila 'Ilm-il-Usul which. has been printed. He also collected the fundamental rule relating to Ilm-ul-Usul in brief in a book form which is first of its kind. He died in 676 A.H.
8. Yahya bin Sa'id al-Hilli was a cousin of Al-Muhaqqiq Ja'far. He wrote Al-Madkal Fi Usul-il-Fiqh. His death occurred in 690 A.H.
9. Al-Allamah al-Hilli al-Hasan bin Yusuf bin al-Mutahhar. He was a pupil of Al-Muhaqqiq. Among his books are An-Nukat-ul-Badi'ah, Ghayat-ul-Wusul, Tahdhib-ul-Wusul (in two volumes), Nahjul Wusul which is a medium sized book. He died in 726 A.H.
10. As-Sayyid 'Amid-ud-Din Abdul Muttalib bin Muhammad al-A'raji al-Husaini was a nephew of al-Allamah and his pupil. He wrote an explanation and commentary on his uncle's book Tahdhib-ul-Wusul. He died during the eighth century.
11. Ash-Shaikh-ul-Jalil Muhammad bin Ali al-Jurjani was also a pupil of Al-Allamah. He wrote Ghayat-ul-Badi Fi Sharh-il-Mabadi Fi Usul-il-Fiqh written by his teacher. He wrote this book in the name of An-Naqib 'Amid-ud-Din Abdul Muttalib Ibn An-Naqib Shams-ud-Din Ali Bin Al-Mukhtar Al-Husaini. I have a copy of this book. He died during the eighth century.
12. Ash-Shahid Muhammad bin Makki al-'Aamili al-Jizzini collected the fundamental rules of the Principles of Jurisprudence in a book form. He also composcd Kitab-ul-Qawa'id Fil Qawa'id il-Fiqhiyyah.He was martyred in 786 A.H.
13. Ash-Shaikh Zain-ud-Din Ali al'Aamili al-Jaba'i continued the work started by Ash-Shahid and composed Tamhid-ul-Qawa'id. He was also martyred in 966 A.H. and is called Ash-Shahid-Uth-Thani.
The lead given by these two martyres was taken by the following scholars :
14. Ash-Shaikh Hasan bin Zain-ud-Din ash-Shahid uth-Thani Al-'Amili who is known as Khatib-ul-Usuliyyin, wrote Al-Ma'alim Fil Usul. Before this book was written, the people used to study this subject through Sharh-ul-Amidi 'Alat Tahdhib which has already been mentioned, alongwith Usul Ibn-il-Hajib and Usul-ul-'Adadi. But after its composition, the teaching and learning of this subject was based upon it He died in 1011 A.H.
15. Ash-Shaikh Muhammad bin ash-Shaikh Hasan bin Zain-ud-Din was the son of the author of Al-Ma'alim, as mentioned above, and was one of those persons who wrote commentaries on this book. He died in 1030 A.H.
16. As-Sayyid Husain known as Khalifah Sultan wrote a commentary on Al-Ma'alim. He died in 1066 A.H.
17. Mulla Saleh al-Mazandrani wrote a commentary on Al-Ma'alim.
18. Muhmmad bin al-Hasan Ash-Shirwani known as Mulla Mirz wrote another commentary on Al-Ma'alim. He died in 1099 A.H.
19. Al-Mulla Abdullah At-Tuni.
He wrote Al-Wafiyah Fil Usul which became very famous and many scholars wrote commentaries on it. He died during the mid-eleventh century.
20. Ash-Shaikh ul-Baha'i, Muhammad bin al-Husain wrote Zubdatul Usul. He died in 1031 A.H.
21. Ash-Shaikh Jawad bin Sa'd ullah al-Kazmi who is commonly known as Al-Fadil al-Jawad was a pupil of Ash-Shaikh ul-Baha'i. He wrote Ghayatul Ma'mul Fi Sharhi Zubdatul Usul. He died during the eleventh century.
22. Ash-Shaikh Asadullah bin Isma'il at-Tustari al-Kazimi. He wrote Kashful-Qina' 'Anil Wujuh-i-Hujjiyatul Ijma'. In this book he gave a summary of what his predecessors had written and supplemented with the contemporary opinions on admissibility of Ijma'. He has been followed by those who came after him upto our own ago. He died in 1220 A.H.
23. As-Sayyid Muhammad al-Jawwad bin Muhammad al-Husaini al-'Aamili an-Najafi is the author of Miftah-ul-Kirmah. He also wrote a commentary on Al-Wafiyah by At-Tuni. He deid in 1226 A.H.
24. As-Sayyid Muhsin al-A'raji al-Baghdadi, Khatib-ul-Usuliyyin who is also known as al-Muhaqqiq-ul-Kazimi is the author of Al-Mahsul Fil Usul. He also wrote a commentary on Al-Wafiyah of At-Tuni which was titled by him as Al-Wafi. He died in 1226 A.H.
25. Ash-Shaikh Ja'far ibn Ash-Shaikh Khidar an-Najafi. He briefly dealt with the issues relating to Usul in the beginning of his book Kashf-ul-Ghita' 'Anil Mahasin-ish-Shari'at-al-Gharra'. He died in 1226 A.H.
26. Ash-Sayyid Husain bin Abul Hasan Musa al-Husaini al-Amili ash-Shaqra'i was the brother of the grandfather of the author of the present work. He was the most famous among the scholars of Usul in Iraq in his age. The scholars of Najaf chose him to debate with Mirza al-Qummi on the issue of 'admissibility of Absolute Probability' when the latter visited Iraq and asked for a debate on this issue. He died in 1230 A.H.
27. Al-Mirza Abul Qasim al-Qummi wrote Qawanin ul-Usul on which people depended for their study of Usul, in addition to Al-Ma'alim. Many commentaries have been written on this book which will be discussed later on. He died in 1233 A.H.
28. Ash-Shaikh Muhammad Taqi bin Abdur Rahim at-Tehrani Al-Ha'iri.
He wrote a voluminous book on Usul and named it as Al-Hashiyah 'Alal Ma'alim. He died in 1248 A.H.
29. Ash-Shaikh Muhammad Husain bin Abdur Rahim al-Isfahani Al-Ha'iri was brother of Ash-Shaikh Muhammad Taqi. He wrote Al-Fusul Fil Usul. He died in 1261 A.H.
30. Mirza Abdul Fattah bin Ali al-Husaini al-Maraghi.
He was one of the pupils of the sons of Ash-Shaikh Ja'far al-Janaji an-Najafi. He has books on the pattern of al-Qawa'id of ash-Shahid of Tamhid-ul-Qawa'id by ash-Shahid-uth-Thani. He died during the thirteenth century.
31. Ash-Shaikh Murtada bin Muhammad Amin at-Tustari al-Ansari is known as Murabbi-ul-Ulama' (Teacher of the scholars). He wrote a well-known book, titled Ar-Rasa'il which is used for teaching of this subject (Usul) along with al-Ma'alim and al-Qawanin. He gives a summary of his predecessors in connection with important principles. He has been followed by those who were his juniors. He dealt with the issues of Usul in such a way that he became the guiding soul for all to come later. Many commentaries have been written on this book and have been printed too. Many books have been compiled form his discussions on Usul from which the people have benefitted. He died is 1281 A.H.
32. As-Sayyid Mehdi al-Qazwini al-Hilli An-Najafi is the author of Ta'lif Fil Usul. He died in 1300 A.H.
33. Ash-Shaikh Musa bin Amin Aal Shararah al-'Amili wrote a poem on the subject which has on parallel. He died in 1304 A.H.
34. Mirza Musa at-Tabrizi is one of the contemporaries. He has written Hashiyah (notes) on the Rasa'il of Shaikh Murtada, which is quite a voluminous book and has been printed. He died during the fourteenth century.
35. Mirza as-Sayyid Muhammad Hasan ash-Shirazi was domiciled in Samara. He was one of the most famous teachers of Usul and trained many a scholar. He was himself a pupil of Ash-Shaikh Murtada. Among his writings is a book Risalah Fil Mushtaqq. He died in 1312 A.H.
36. Mirza Habib Ullah Ar-Rashti was pupil of Shaikh Murtada. He was a very famous teacher of Usul and wrote a book named Bada'i'-ul-Usul. He died in 1313 A.H.
37. Mirza Shaikh Muhammad Hasan al-Ashtiyani at-Tehrani was a pupil of Shaikh Murtada. He wrote a commentary on ar-Rasa'il which has been prinnted. He died in 1322 A.H.
38. Ash-Shaikh Mulla Kazim al-Khurasani an-Najafi was our teacher and our Shaikh. He was one of most famous teachers of Usul in our age. He polished up the subject and simplified it. He has written a commentary on the Rasa'il of Shaikh Murtada as well as Al-Kifayah Fil Usul in which he treated all the necessary topics of the subject, with the result that the students and teachers bank upon it along with Al-Ma'alim, Qawanin and Rasa'il. Nowadays, Al-Qawanin has been left out and the study of Usul is confined to three books, namely, Al-Ma'alim, Ar-Rasa'il and Al-Kifayah. He died in 1329 A.H.
39. Ash-Shaikh Mahdi al-Khalisi al-Kazimi was one of the pupils of Shaikh Mulla Kazim Khurasani. He wrote a commentary on al-Kifayah and has written on many subjects in Usul. He died in 3143 A.H.
40. As-Sayyid Abul Hasan Isfahani.
41. Ash-Shaikh Mirza Husain Na'ini
42. Ash-Shaikh Abdul Karim Haeri Yazdi
43.Ash-Shaikh Ziya-ul-Din al-Iraqi an-Najafi was a student of Shaikh Mulla Kazim and was a very famous teacher. He has written a commentary on Al-Kifayah. He died in 1361 A.H.
In addition to those mentioed above, many scholars of our age as well as in the past have written books which are numerous and printed. To estimate the work done by the Shi'ite scholars in this field is difficult, not to speak of enumerating the scholars and teachers on this subject.

Shi'ite Scholars in the Field Of Scholasticism(Al-Kalam)

Among them are the Imams from the Ahl-al-Bait(A.S.) and their sons and other Hashimites from among the Companions of the prophet and the Tabi'yun.Then comes the name of Imam Ali Bin Abi Talib, the First Imam and leader of the Shi'ites. He was the pioneer in formulating what we call the art of argument and debating or what is commonly know Ilm-ul-Kalaam. There is enough of this in his speeches and arguments in the matter relating to the Caliphate and other issues especially on the Day of Aaqifah, shurah,in the battles of Jamal and Siffin, in his rejoinders to Mu'awiyah and to the Kharjites and others. All such occasions are innumerable.
Similarly, Sayyidat-un-Nisa' Hadrat Fatimat-uz-Zahra' (A.S.) protested to the Muhajirin and Ansar as well as to the first Caliph in connection with Caliphate and Fadak and her inheritance to her father. She made these protests in the gatherings of women and in the mosque, through magnificent speeches and long talks which astonished the reasons and surprised those who had reason.
Imam Hasan bin Ali (A.S.) protested against the attitude of Mu'awiyah in Year of Jama'at on the Pulpit of Kufa and on other occasion which made the people remember him and his fame far and wide.
Imam Husayn bin Ali (A.S.) protested against Mu'awiyah and against the tyrants of Kufa on the Day of Karbala and many other such occasions which are quite well known.
Imam Zainul-Abidin(A.S.) gave much evidence of this capacity through his protests and speeches and in connection with different scholastic issues. His protest against Ubaidullah bin Ziyad in Kufa, against the Syrian on the gate of Damascus mosque and his sddress to Yazid when the Mu'adhdhin called of the Prophet during the Adhan and asked Yazid, »Was he my grandfather or yours?« are sufficient to prove our point.
The same stir was created by Sayyidah Zainab bint Ali (A.S.) when she vehemently protested in her speeck in Kufa as well as in the presence of Yazid in Damascus and made every one wonder-struck.
Similarly Sayyidah Umm Kulthum(A.S.) protested in her speech in Kufa after the assassination of her brother and gave convincing arguments in her speech.
Same was the case with Muslim ibn 'Aqeel Bin Abi Talib. He gave stunting replies to Ibn Ziyad while he was under arrest and in chains.
At-Tabrisi has quoted a lot from such protests of the Imams from the Ahl-al-Bait(A.S.), in his book "Kitab-ul-Ihtijaj".
Among these Imams is Imam Muhammad Baqir (A.S.) who had his influences on all branches of knowledge which cannot be put to any limitations. His grand-father, the Prophet, named him as Baqir-ul-Ilm (which means the one who dissects and opens up knowledge). Among his special fields are those connected with Al-Kalaam and rational argumentation.
He entered into such an argument with Muhammad ibn al-Munkadir who was one of the famous ascetics of his age. Similarly, he protested against and argued with Hisham Bin Abdul Malik, Nafe' ibn al-Azraq, his son Abdullah bin Nafe' (these both belonged to the Kharjites). Imam Abu Hanifah, Qitadah Bin Di'amah al-Basri, Abdullah bin Mu'mir al-Lithi and others, the details of which will be given in the biographical account of Imam Muhammad al- Baqir(A.S.). The Holy Imam was martyred in 114A.H.
Imam Ja'far Sadiq(A.S.), like his father, affected and influenced all the fields of studies which filled the books and which the travellers took with them and he was widely known. Among these branches of studies is Ilm-al-Kalaam in which field he exercised his influence over comparatively a larger number of people. Al-Mufadal bin 'Umar, who was one of his companions, has reported a book from him on this subject which is known as "Tawhid-ul-Mufadal" which is remarkable book as a rejoinder to Atheism, and deals with the proofs of existence of the Creator.
Similarly, Shaykh Sudooq whose full name is Muhammad bin Ali Bin Babawaih al-Qummi, wrote a book on the issue of Tawhid and problems of al-Kalaam in which we can find the influence of Imam Ja'far Sadiq(A.S.) and other members of the Ahl al-Bait(A.S.). This book is known as Tawhid-us-Sudooq and is available in printed form. Imam Ja'far Sadiq(A.S.) was martyred in 148A.H.
Similarly, many arguments were given out by Imam Musa Kazim(A.S.) which have since been well known. Imam Musa Kazim(A.S.) was martyred in 183A.H.
Same is the case with Imam Ali bin Musa Ar-Reza(A.S.). There are many debates and arguments conducted by him against various scholastics and other persons. He also gave answers to the questions which al-Mamun put to him in connection with the problems of Al-Kalaam. There is also a book in his name, titled as Al-Ahlilajah in which there are comprehensive arguments and discussions relating to the problems of Al-Kalaam. Imam Ali bin Musa Ar-Reza(A.S.) was martyred in 203 A.H.
As to Imam Muhammad Taqi al-Jawad(A.S.), his debate with Qadi Al-Qudat Yahya Bin Aktham is very famous. Imam Muhammad Taqi al-Jawad(A.S.) was martyred in 220 A.H. In the same way, many debates and arguments are known to be the result of Imam Ali Al-Hadi's work.Imam Hadi(A.S.) was martyred in250 A.H.
Some brilliant pupils of the Holy Imams(A.S.) from among the Ahl-al-Bait(A.S.) excelled in Ilm-ul-Kalaam by virtue of their sharpness and mastery in argumentation, like Hisham ibn al-Hakam, Hisham bin Salim, Mu'min-ut-Taq and others.
Among the Hashimite companions of the prophet, we can quote the name of Abdullah Bin Abbas.He argued with Umm-ul-Mu minin Aa'ishah when the later set out for the Battle of Camel towards Basra. He was also named as one of the two mediators by Amir-ul-Mu'minin Imam Ali bin Abi Talib(A.S.) who very well knew his qualification, but the head-strong trouble-mongers from the Iraqite group did not agree to it.
He was also sent to argue against the Kharjites because of his power of argumentation, his effective way of talking and his clarity of presentation of reasons which resulted into a large number from the Kharjites coming back to Imam Ali Bin Abi Talib(A.S.). His debates with Ibn Zubair and with those who used to abuse Ali(A.S.) are well known in the world and have been occupying the pens to write them.
Among other companions, we can name Umm-ul-Mu'minin, Umm Salma who debated with Umm-ul-Mu'minin Aa'ishah when the latter set out for the Battle of the Camel towards Basra. The echoes of her arguments reverberate till our own time and were of such a nature that once Umm-ul-Mu'minin As'ishah had changed her mind to revolt against Ali(A.S.). It was later when her nephew Abdullah came and changed her opinion that she went to Basra.
We can also mention the names of Qais bin Sa'd bin 'Ibadah, Al-Ahnaf Bin Qais, Abu Tufail Aamir bin Wa'ilah and Sa'sah bin Suhan, among the companions who had their share in this field.
There were twelve persons from the companions who were the first among the Shi'ites to lay the foundation of that branch of knowledge which is known as Ilm-ul-Kalaam after the death of the Holy Prophet(S.A.W.). On of them was Abu Dhar. He took upon himself this work during the Caliphate of Uthman and Amirate of Mu'awiyah and continued to perform this task till died in banishment to Syria Ar-Rabadhah.
Shi'ite Scholastics among the Tabi'iyun and later on.
As-Sayyid Murtada has quoted from Majalis-ul-Mufid in his own book Al-Fusul-ul-Mukhtarah and from Al-Jahiz in his book »Al-'Uyun wal Mahasin« that Al-Kumait was the first Shi'ite to enter into debating and defending his position by giving rational arguments. Had not there been Al-Kumait and what he wrote in his poetry about the superiority of Aal Muhammad(A.S.), the Shi'ites would not have known the arguments connected with this issue.
It has however to be observed that to believe in the superiority and lead of Al-Kumait over the companions and to say that the Shi'ites would not have known such arguments but for him, is not correct and is an exaggeration. Al-Mufid has refuted this position and said that, what Al-Kumait put into his poetry was in fact an argument put forward by Amir al-Mu'minin Ali(A.S.) against Mu'awiyah in reply to the latter's letter. This argument was repeated used by other members of the Family of the Holy Prophet(S.A.W.) and also by the Shi,ite scholastics before Al-Kumait died in 126A.H.
Other scholastics and Mutakallimin of this group are as follows:
1. Abdur-Rahman bin Ahmad bin Jabruyah Abu Muhmmad al-'Askari.
An-Najashi has written about him, "He was a scholastic from our friends and was capable of sound argument. He debated with 'Ibad bin Sulaiman and other persons of his age. He has a book to his credit, named, "al-Kamil Fi Imamatil Hasan.". He died in the early second century.
2. Wazarah Ibn A'yun.
According to Ibn al-Nadim, he was the most well-known from among those Shi'ite who became famous for scholasticism. He died in 150 A.H.
3. Isa bin Rawdah
In-Najashi has said that he was a brilliant Mutakallim and wrote a book on Imamate. Ahmad Bin Abi Tahir has praised him in his book "Kitab-o-Baghdad" and has said that he had seen the book. I have read in some books that, whenever Al-Mansur,the Abbasid caliph was in a fix, he used to listen to Isa bin Rawdah who his ally. He used to talk about Imamate. Al-Mansur liked his talk and praised his argument.
As-Suyuti has said Al-Awa'il that Wasil bin 'Ata' was the pioneer in the field of Al-Kalaam. But Wasil died in 181 A.H.
He is not therefore senior to Isa bin Rawdah, because he was a friend of Al-Mansur who died in 158 A.H.
He died in the mid-second century.
4. Qais-ul-Masir.
He was well-known in this field. One mutakallim debated with a Syrian in the presence of Imam Ja'far Sadiq(A.S.). The Syrian won the debate, as is given by the report of Yunus At-Tawil in Al-Kafi's chapter entitled Al-Idtirar Ilal Hujjat. This report also tells that Imam Ja'far Sadiq(A.S.) asked Yunus to look through the door and see who among the scholastics and debators were coming. He did. At that time four persons entered, namely, Hamran bin 'A'yun, Al-Ahwal, Hisham bin Salim and Qais-ul-Masir.
Yunus has said," In my opinion he was the best debator among them; He had learnt the art of Al-Kalam from Ali Bin Al-Husain". Imam Ja'far Sadiq(A.S.) said to Qais in the same meeting, "Speak out that which should be nearest to what the Prophet has said and the farthest from that in which truth and untruth are mixed up. A little truth is much better than too much of untruth. You and Al-Ahwal are two brilliant one to jump.« He died in the mid-second century.
5-Al-Ahwal, Abu Ja'far Muhammad bin Ali Bin An-Nu'man commonly known as Mu'minut-Taq.
Ibn al-Nadim has said about him that he was very brilliant in Ilm-ul-Kalaam. Similarly Al-'Allama has said in Al-Khullasa that he was profound in knowledge, and of a very fine temperament. An-Najashi has made similar observations about him. He debated and argued with Syrian, mentioned in connection with Qais-ul-Masir, in the presepce of Imam Ja'far Sadiq(A.S.) and won the debate over the Syrian. Imam Ja'far Sadiq(A.S.) said to him, "You are a person who makes good analogical inferences and knows how to strike stealthily.You shatter Batil (Untruth) with Batil except that your method won."
Then the Imam(A.S.) said to him and Qais-ul-Masir, "You are two brilliant ones to jump.His arguments with the naturlist and atheists are well known. 'He had many talks with Imam Abu Hanifah. He wrote many books on Al-Kalaam, including one proving the Imamate of Amir-ul-Mu'minin Imam Ali Talib(A.S.). He died in the mid-second cetury.
6. Hamran bin A'yun.
He was well known in his age as a scholastic. He wrote Kitab-ul-Imamah and Kitab-ul-Ma'rifah. He also argued with the aforementioned Syrian and defeated him. Imam Ja'far Sadiq(A.S.) said to him, "You lead the argument to its end and hit the mark". He died in the mid-second century.
7- Hisham bin Salim al-Jawaliqui.
He was a well known debator and scholastic of his age. He debated with a person from Bani Makhzum during the life-time of Imam Ja'far Sadiq(A.S.), as well as the aforementioned Syrian and defeated him. Imam Ja'far Sadiq(A.S.) remarked,"You desire the effect but do not know it."
8- Abu Ishaq bin Sulaiman bin Abi Daha al-Mazni.
An -Najashi has said about him, "He was a distinguished person from our friends in Basra in respect to his studies including that of Al-Kalaam and Al-Jahiz talks about him. Similar remarks have been made by Ash-Shaikh in Al-Fahrist. He died in the mid-second century.
9- Hisham bin al-Hakam
According to Ibn al-Nadim, he was one of the Shi'ite scholastics (Mutakallimin) who strengthened arguments on the subject of Imamate and pruned and diginified the theory and creed. He was an adept debator and quick in replies. Both An-Najashi and Allamah have expressed similar opinions about him. He too debated with the Syrian mentioned above and cornered him so much so that the latter was forced to agree with him.
He had many debates which are recorded in the books as well as a number of books on the issue of Imamate and Al-Kalam. He died in 199 A.H.
10- Faddal bin Hasan bin Faddal
He was also a debator and a scholastic. He once debated with Imam Abu Hanifah, the account of which is given in Al-Fusul-ul-Mukhtarah and by At-Tabrisi in Al-Ihtijaj. He died during the second century.
11- Abu Ja'far Muhammad bin al-Khalil As-Sakkak al-Baghdadi
He was a pupil of Hisham Bin Al-Hakam and, according Ash-Shaikh and An-Najashi, he was a scholastic and a debator and wrote a book on Imamate. He died during the second century.
12-Ali bin Isma'il bin Shu'aib bin Maitham At-Tammar
He was a contemporary of Hisham bin al-Hakam. He entered into an argument with Abul Hudhail Al-'Allaf, Darar Bin 'Amr Ad-Dabiyy and An-Nizam on the issue of Imamate in Baghdad and completely paralysed them. This has been mentioned by Al-Murtada in Al-Fusul-ul-Mukhtarah.
According to Ibn-un-Nadim, he was the first among the Shi'ites to defend the Shi'ite faith and creed in accordance with the principles of logic. He wrote Kitab-ul-Imamah and Kitab-ul-Istehqaq. His grand-father Maitham was one of the most prominent friends of Amir-ul-Mu'minin Imam Ali bin Abi Talib(A.S.). An-Najashi has said about him, "He was one of prominent personalities from among our friends. He argued and debated with Abul Hudhail and An-Nizam and wrote a book titled Kitab-ul-Imamah and another known as Kitab Majalis Hisham bin Al-Hakam.
Ash-Shaikh has remarked about him in his Al-Fahrist that he was the first person to defend and debate on the Shi'ite creed and wrote a book on the issue of Imamate and named it as Al-Kamil. He had another book named Al-Istehqaq. Similarly, in his book Ar-Rijal, Ash-Shaikh has said about him, "He is a descendant of Al-Maitham, a scholastic and one of the companions of Imam Reza(A.S.).
But Isa bin Rawda, who we have already mentioned and who lived during the reign of Al-Mansur was senior to Ali bin Isma'il, because the latter lived during the reign of Ar-Rashid and Al-Mamun. Similarly, Al-Kumait was also senior to Ali bin Isma'il if we take into the period after that of the companions, otherwise in general terms the Mutakallimin from among the companions were all senior to him. He died during the second century.
13- Abu Malik ad-Dahhak al-Hadrami
According to An-Najashi, he was a scholastic and a debator and an author of a book on Tawhid. Similarly, An-Nadim has also counted him from among the Shi'ite Scholastics. He died during the mid-second century.
14- As-Sayyid al-Himyari, Isma'il bin Muhammad.
His poetry is full of argumentation and defence of the Shi'ite creed. His debate with Sawwar al-Qadi in the presence of Harun Ar-Rashid is well known. He died in 199 A.H.
15- Abu Abdullah Muhammad bin Abdullah bin Mamlik al-Isfahani.
Ibn-un Nadim has mentioned him in his Al-Fahrist as a Shi'ite Mutakallim. He had a sitting with Abu Ali al-Juba'i in the presence of Abu Muhammad al-Qasim bin Muhammad al-Karkhi in which they discussed upon the issue of Imammte.
He wrote a book on Imamate. He began writing another in refutation of Abu Ali al-Juba'i but could not complete it.
Ash-Shaikh has also given similar information about him as Ibn-un-Nadim except that he has said that he was an Imamite Mutakallim. According to An-Najashi, he wrote a comprehensive book covering all the issues relating to Al-Kalam. He also wrote Kitab-ul-Masa'il Fil Imamah and another relating to his discussions with Abu Ali Al-Juba'i.He died in the late second century.
Nawbakhti Mutakallims (Scholastics)
Ibn-un-Nadim has said in his Al-Fahrist that the Nawbakhtis are well known for their love and devotion towards Imam Ali(A.S.) and his children. Similarly, according to Riyad-ul-Ulama' the Nawbakhtis are a well known group of the Shi'ite scholars and Mutakallims. Some scholars have collected the names of scholastics from this family. We mention their names in the following lines together, basing our information upon these books.
They are:
1. Al-Hasan bin Musa an-Nawbakhti Abu Muhammad;
2. Musa bin al-Hasan bin Abbas bin Isma'il bin Sahl ibn Nawbakht;
3. Al-Fadl bin Abi Sahl bin Nawbakht;
4. Abdullah bin Abi Sahl.
5. Abu Sahl al-Fadl bin Abi Sahl bin Nawbakht (He wrote a voluminous book on Imamate);
6. Ishaq bin Abi Sahl bin Nawbakht;
7. Abu Ishaq Isma'il bin Ishaq bin Abi Sahl bin Nawbakht;
8. Ya'qub bin Ishaq bin Abi Sahl bin Nawbakht;
9. Ali bin Ishaq bin Abi Sahl bin Nawbakht (whose nick-name was Abu Sahl and who wrote a number of books).
10. Ishaq bin Nawbakht al-Katib.
11. Abu Abdullah Ahmad bin Abdullah an-Nawbakhti.
12. Abul Hasan Ali bin Ahmad bin Abdullah an-Nawbakhti;
13. Abul Husain Ali bin Abbas an-Nawbakhti;
14. Abu Ya'la bin Ja'far, known as Ibn Rahumah an-Nawbakhti;
15. Abu Ja'far Ahmad bin Ibrahim Bin Nawbakht, who was a son-in law of Abu Ja'far Muhammad bin Uthman bin Sa'id al-'Umrawi;
16. Abu Ibrahim Ja'far bin Ahmad bin Ibrahim bin Nawbakht;
17.Abu Ja'far Abdullah bin Ibrahim, who was a brother of Ahmad bin Ibrahim bin Nawbakht;
18.Abul Hasan bin Kathir an-Nawbakhti;
19.Ruh Bin Abul Qasim;
20. Al-Husain ibn Ruh bin Abu Ruh an-Nawbakhti;
21. Sulaiman bin Abu Sahl bin Nawbakht;
22. Al-Hasan bin Muhammad bin Ali ibn al-Abbas bin Isma'il bin Abu Sahl bin Nawbakht;
23. Ibrahim bin Ja'far bin Ahmad bin Ibrahim ibn Nawbakht.
Abu Sahl al-Fadl bin Nawbakht was, according to Ibn-un-Nadim, employed in Khazanatul Hikmah of Harun-ur-Rashid.
Ibn-ul-Qifti has said that he was one of hte famous leaders of Mutakallims and was mentioned in the books of these people. He lived during the reign of Harun-ur-Rashid who entrusted him with the work of setting up a library of books on Hikmah (philosophy). He died in the late second century.
His son Ishaq bin Abu Sahl bin Nawbakht was a famous scholastic, as given by the book Khandane Nawbakhti. He died during the third century.
Abu Muhammad al-Hajjal Abdullah Bin Muhammad, as Al-Fadl Bin Shadhan has stated, was "a scholastic from our friends, a good talker who debated efficiently with people."He died in the beginning of the third century.
Al-Qasim bin Yusuf al-Katib was one of the Shi'ite scholastics and poets. This is supported by Al-Marzbani in his Al-Nukhbatul Mukhtarah and by Abu Bakr As-Suli in Kitab-ul-Awraq. He died in the early third century.
Abu Uthman Al-Mazini Bakr Bin Muhammad An-Nahwi Al-Basri is a well known person. An-Najashi has reported on the authority of Muhammad Bin Yazid Al-Mubrid An-Nahwi that the latter said about him that Abu Uthman Bakr Bin Muhammad was from among the Shi'ite scholars and was employed with Isma'il Bin Maitham.
This Isma'il Bin Maitham, as already mentioned, was one of the Shi'ite Scholastics who are quite well known. According to Bughyatul Wi'at, Al-Mazini was such a person with whom none debated but that lost his mastery over debating. He died in 248A.H.
Al-Fadl bin Shadhan an-Naishapuri was a scholastic as we get from the evidence of Ash-Shaikh. An-Najashi says about him that he was one of the brilliant scholastics who belonged to the Shi'ite group. He died in 260 A.H.
Other writers and scholastics are as follows:
1. Muhammad bin Abi Ishaq al-Qummi.
As-Shaikh had testified that he wrote books on Al-Kalaam. An-Najashi has said that he was a scholastic who has been mentioned by Ibn Battah. He died during the third Century.
2. Ibrahim Bin Muhammad Bin Sa'id Ath-Thaqafi.
He is the writer of a voluminous book on Imamate and another smaller volume on the same subject. Both these books have been mentioned by Ash-Shaikh in Al-Fahrist and An-Najashi. He died in 283 A.H.
3. Ya'qub bin Ishaq bin Abu Sahl Bin Nawbakht was well versed in philosophy, al-Kalaam and astronomy. He died during the third century.
4. Ali bin Ishaq bin Abu Sahl bin Nawbakht was the brother of Ya'qub mentioned above and was well versed in Al-Kalaam and astronomy. He died during the third century.
5. Abu Muhammad Yahya bin al-Husain al-'Alawi al-Naishapuri belonged to the family of Bani Ziyadah and according to Ibn Shahr Ashub, was a mutakallim and had written many books. He was alive in 305 A.H.
6. Abu Ja'far Muhammad bin Abdur Rahman bin Qibbah ar-Razi.
Ibn-un-Nadim has said about him, "He is one of the Shi'ite mutakallims and a very expert one. He wrote a book titled Kitab-ul-Insaf Fil Imamah and still another named Kitab-ul-Imamah.
Similarly An-Najashi says, "He was very strong in Kalaam. Originallh he was a Mu'tazilite but later on turned an Imamite. He wrote a book on al-Kalaam" Then An-Najashi wrote quoting Ibn Battah that he wrote a book named Al-Insaf Fil Imamah. He also reports al-Hamadani saying that he went to Abul Qasim al-Balkhi in Balkh and he had Kitabul Insaf with him.
Al-Balkhi refuted that book through al-Mustarshid which al-Hamduni took to Rayy to Ibn Qibbah who gave a rejoinder to al-Mustarshid through Al-Mustathbit. Al-Hamdani took this book back to Al-Balkhi in Balkh who once again criticised it. Again Al-Hamdani took that critcism back to Ibn Qibbah but found him dead by that time. He died in the beginning of the fourth century.
7. Abul Husain Muhammad bin Bashar As-Susanjardi known as Al-Hamdani
He received his education from Abul Qasim al-Balkhi. In the beginning he was a Mu'tazilite but then became an Imamite and refuted the arguments of Al-Balkhi. An-Najashi says, "He was a good debator and Mutakallim and wrote two books, namely, Al-Muqni' and Al-Munqidh. Both these books dealt with the issue of Imamate.
Both Ash-Shaikh and Ibn-un-Nadim have said in their Fahrists (Catalogues of authors) that he was employed with Abu Sahl an-Nawbakhti and wrote Kitab-ul-Inqadh Fil Imamah. Ibn Battah says in his Fahrist, "He is one of our most prominent friends and of the best mutakallims. He has written a book on Imamate which is well known. He performed Hajj on foot fifty times." He died in the beginning of the fourth century.
8. Al-Hasan bin Abu 'Aqil al-'Ammani was a mutakallim and wrote a book on Al-Kalam, named Kitab-ul-Karr-il-wal Farr. The most prominent Shi'ite religious scholars have praised him and his books. He died in the beginning of the fourth century.
9. Abu Muhammd al-Hasan bin Musa an-Nawbakhti was a nephew of Abu Sahl Isma'il bin Ali whose account is to follow. Ibn-un-Nadim and Ash-Shaikh in their Fahrists as well as An-Najashi have said that he was a mutakallim and a philosopher. Many books have been reported having been written by him. He is the author Al-Firaq wad Diyanat (which has been mentioned among his books). He bears his link with the family of Nawbakhtis from the side of his mother. He died in 310 A.H.
10. Abu Sahl Isma'il bin Ali Ishaq bin Abu Sahl bin Nawbakht
He was the patron of Al-Bahtari. Ash-Shaikh (in his Al-Fahrist) and An-Najashi have said, "He was the leader and teacher of the mutakallims and was from among our friends in Baghdad and their prominent figure. He is said to have written many books on Al-Kalam. Ibn-un-Nadim has said, "He was one of the prominent Shi'ites and a very scholarly mutakallim. There are on record a number of his sittings and talks with other mutakkallims and he is said to have written a number of books on Al-Kalam. He died in 311 A.H.
11.Abu Ja'far Muhammad bin Ali bin Ishaq was the brother of Abu Sahl Ism'il. According to the book Khandane Nawbakhti he was counted among mutakallims and had learnt Al-Kalam from his brother Abu Sahl.
12. Al-Mas'udi, Ali Ibn Al-Husain, He is counted among the Mutakallims. He wrote Ithbat-ul-Wassiyyah, As-Safwah Fil Imamah, Al-Istinsar, Az-Zahi, which he has mentioned in Maruj-udh-Dhahab. He died in 346 A.H.
13. Kashajam, Mahmud bin al-Husain was a famous poet and was treated as a mutakallim in the circlcs of scholars. He died in 350 A.H.
14. Abu Ja'far Bin Muhammad Jarir Bin Rustum At-Tabari Al-Aamili
An-Najashi has said about him, He is from among our friends, very well read and scholarly person and knows the art of conversation. He wrote the book Al-Mustarshi Fil Imamah." An-Najashi has also quoted the authorities on this book. Similar account is given in Al-Fahrist of Ash-Shaikh.
It may be pointed out here that the presently discussed author is different from Abu Ja'far Muhammad bin Jarir bin Yazid bin Khalid at-Tabari who is well known historian and an exegesist and has his books widely known. Abu Bakr Al-Khuwarzimi was the nephew of the former and not the latter as commonly considered. He died in the mid-fourth century.
15. Abu Ishaq Ibrahim Bin Ishaq Bin Abu Sahl Bin Nawbakht. He was the author of the book on Al-Kalam, named, Al-Yaqut. This book has been explained and commented upon by Allama al-Hilli who has praised the author very much in the beginning of the commentary. He died in the mid-fourth century.
16. Abul Qasim Ali bin Ahmad al-Kufi.
Ibn-un-Nadim has said about him," He is one of the Imamite scholars and the author of Kitab-ul-Awsiya," . Ash-Shaikh has said in his Al-Fahrist, " He was an Imamite following the right path. He wrote many books of which Kitab-ul-Awsiya' is the most valuable." He died in 352 A.H.
17. Muhammad bin Ali bin' Abdak al-Jurjani.
There is a reort from Al-Hakim in Ansab-us-Sam'ani that he was considered among those having insight in Al-Kalam. An-Najashi says that he was a grand mutakallim. Similarly Ash-Shaikh declares in his Al-Fahrist that he was one of the top-ranking mutakallims on the matters relating to Imamate. He died after 360 A.H.
18. An-Nashi al-Asghar, Abul Husain Ali bin Abdullah bin Wasif
He was a well known poet. According to Ibn Khallakan, he was a pupil of Abu Sahl Isma'il bin Ali bin Ishaq bin Abu Sahl and learnt Al-Kalam from him. An-Najashi and Ash-Shaikh (the latter in his Al-Fahrist) both have said that he wrote a book on Al-Kalam. Ibn-un-Nadim has placed him among the Shi'ite scholastics (mutakallim) and has said that he was an adept debator. He died in 365 A.H.
19. As-Sahib, Isma'il bin 'Ibad wrote three books on Al-Kalam, namely, Kitab Asma'ullah Wa Sifateh, Al-Anwar Fil Imamah and Al-Ibanah 'Anil Imam. He died in 285 A.H.
20. Ali bin Ahmad al-Khazzar
Ash-Shaikh has mentioned him in his Rijal as a top-ranking mutakallim. He died during the fourth century.
21. Muhammad bin Ahmad al-Harithi has been mentioned by Ash-Shaikh as well as An-Najashi as having written a book on Imamate. They have also quoted the authorities for this book. He died during the fourth century.
22. Al-Fadl bin Abdur-Rahman al-Baghdadi
An-Najashi has said he was a mutakallim who knew how to talk well. Abu Abdullah al-Husain bin Abdullah al-Ghada'iri says, "I had his book on Imamate which was a big book." He died during the fourth century.
23. Abul Hasan Ali bin Muhammad al-'Adawi ash-Shamahati
According to An-Najashi he was the author of Ar-Risalah Al-Jami'ah, Ar-Risalah Al-Kashifah 'Ann Khata'il 'Asa'atal Mukhalifah and Risalatul Intisaf Min Dhawil Baghyyi Wal Iqtiraf. He died during the fourth century.
24. Ash-Shaikh Mufid, Muhammad bin Muhammad bin Nu'man
He is know as Ibn-ul-Mu'allim and paved way for every one in the field of Al-Kalam. According to Ibn-un-Nadim, the headship of the Mutakallims of the Shi'ite has been reserved for ever. His three books on Al-Kalam are well known, namely, Al-Ifsah 'Anil Imamah, Al-'Uyun Wal Mahasin and Al-Majalis. He died in 413 A.H.
25. Mehyar Dailami was a poet and there are sound arguments and a number of discussions in his poems. He died in 428 A.H.
26. As-Sayyid al-Murtada Ali bin al-Husain al-Muswi known as 'Alam-ul-Huda.
Allama has said in Al-Khullasah that he combined many branches of knowledge in his personality and that there is a general agreement on his accomplishment and his achievement in the field of knowledge, including Ilm-ul-Kalam. He wrote Ash-Shafi Fil Imamah as a rejoinder to Al-Mughni of Qadi Abu Bakr Al-Baqilani. This book is without any comparison. He also wrote Al-Fusul-ul-Mukhtarah which has been adapted from books of Al-Mahasin. He died in 436 A.H.
27. Abul Fateh Muhammad bin Uthman al-Karajaki was an adept mutakallim. He died in 449 A.H.
28. Abu Yu'la Muhammad bin al-Hasan bin Hamza al-Ja'fari was, as reported by An-Najashi, a jurist and a mutakallim and was profound in both fields. He died in 463 A.H.
29. Abu Muhammad Yahya bin Muhammad al-Hassani al-Alawi
An-Najashi has said about him that he was a scholar a jurist and a mutakallim. An-Najashi has also mentioned the books written by him including one on Imamate. Obviously he is the one referred to in Bughyat-ul-Wi'at and Mu'jam-ul-Udaba' as Yahya Bin Muhammad Bin Tabataba Al-'Alawi whose inckname has been given as Abu Muhammad or Abu 'Ammarah. He was a Shi'ite. He died in 478 A.H.
30. Muhammad bin Ahmad bin Ali al-Fattal an-Naishapuri. He is the author of Rawdat-ul-Wa'izin. Al-Hasan bin Da'ud has said in 'Biographies' that he was a very prominent mutakallim. He died during the fifth century.
31. Abul Abbas Ahmad bin Muhammad al-Ishbili known as Ibn-ul-Hajj.
According to As-Suyuti, he wrote a book on Imamate in which he proved the Imamate of the Twelve.
32. Sadid-ud-Din Mahmud bin Ali al-Humsi ar-Razi al-Hilli
He is a well-known person. He was a profound mutakallim and has many books on Al-Kalam to his credit. Fakhr-ud-Din ar-Razi has quoted many of his arguments in the explanation of the verse of Al-Mubahalah. According to Al-Qamus, Mahmud bin Ali al-Humsi was a mutakallim from whom Fakhr-ud-Din ar-Razi got many points. He died during the sixth century.
33. Nasir-ud-Din Muhammad bin Muhammad at-Tusi. He is called 'the Teacher of Philosophers' and is the author of a large number of books on Metaphysics and Al-Kalam. Among these books is At-Tajrid which has received a world-wide fame. It has been explained and commented upon by many great scholars. Another book written by him is Sharh-ul-Majisti which has on comparison whatsoever. He died in 672 A.H.
34. Sadid-ud-Din Salim bin Mahfuz bin Arizah al-Hilli as-Sura'i.
He is the author of Al-Minhaj Fi 'Ilm-ul-Kalam. He died during the seventh century.
35. Ali Bin Sulaiman al-Bahrani is the author of Al-Isharat Fil Kalam. He died during the seventh century.
36. Maitham Bin Ali Maitham Al-Bahrani was a pupil of Ali Bin Sulaiman, mentioned above. He was a philosopher and mutakallim. He wrote an explanation of Al-Isharat written by his teacher. He also wrote Al-Qawa'id Fi 'Ilm-ul-Kalam, An-Nijat Fil Qiyamah Fi Amr-il-Imamah and Istiqsa'-un-Nazar Fi Imamat-il-A'imamatel Ithna 'Ashar. He also wrote a commentary on Nahj-ul-Balaghah. His death occurred in 679 A.H.
37. Al-Hasan bin Da'ud al-Hilli is the author of Rijal. He also wrote Ad-Durruth-Thamin Fi Usul-id-Din (in verse) and Al-Kharidat-ul-'Adhara' Fil 'Aqidatil Gharra' (in verse).He died during the seventh or eighth century.
38. Al-Allamah al-Hassan bin Yusuf al-Hilli
He has a large number of book on Al-Kalam and philosophy. Some of these are Sharh-ut-Tajrid, Minhaj-ul-Karamah, Nahjul Haq, Nahjul Mustarshidin Ar-Risalah As-Sa'diyyah, Asrarul Malakut Fi Sharh il-Yaqut, Kitab-ul Alfain etc. etc. The number of his books on Al-Kalam and philosophy is estimated to be forty. He died in 726 A.H.
39. Muhammad bin al-Hasan,Fakhrul Muhaqqiqin was the son of Al-Allamah referred to above and wrote a book on Al-Kalam titled Al-Kafiyah. He died in 771 A.H.
40. Safi-ud-Din Abdul Aziz bin Saraya al-Hilli was a mutakallim who expressed himself in verse. He died in 752 A.H.
41. Ash-Sharif Jamal-ud-Din Abdullah bin Muhammad bin Ahmad an-Naishapuri, domiciled in Aleppo.
In Bughyatul Wi'at, it has been reported on the authority of Ad-Durur ul-Kaminah that he was one of scholars of Ma'qul (Rational philosophy) and was adept in Usul and Arabic Language and Literature. He died in 776 A.H.
42. Al-Miqdad bin Abdullah as-Sayyuri al-Asadi. He is the author of Irashad-ul-Talibin which is a commentary of Nahj-ul-Mustarshidin by Allamah. He also wrote a commentary on the Eleventh Chapter of Mukhtasirul Misbah by Allama. He died in 792 A.H.
43. Al-Hasan bin Muhammad bin Muhammad bin Rashid al-Hilli
According to Riyad-ul-Ulama' he was a profound mutakallim and wrote Misbah-ul-Muhtadin Fi Usul-id-Din. He was alive in 827 A.H.
44. Jalal-ud-Din Muhammad bin Asad ad-Dawwani.
He was a philosopher-scholastic and wrote a number of books on Al-Kalam and philosophy, including Anwar-ul-Hidayah in which he has mentioned his being a Shi'ite. He died in 908 A.H.
45. Aqa Muhammad Reza Bin al-Hasan al-Qazwini
He is the author of Diyafat-ul-Ikhwan, which deals with the scholars of Qazwin. He was a mutakallim too. He died in 1096 A.H.
46. Ash-Shaikh Kazim al-Arzi al-Baghdadi was a poet and an adept debator-scholastic. He died in 1212 A.H.
47. Mirza Hidayat Ullah al-Urshaji al-Mashhadi was one of the scholastics. He died in 1218 A.H.
48. Ash-Shaikh Ali bin Abdullah bin Ali al-Bahrani.
He is the author Lisan-us-Sidq which was written as rejoinder to Mizan-ul-Haqq written by a Christian scholar. He was successful in this book. It was twice printed, in India and in Egypt. He died in early fourteenth century.
49. As-Sayyid Hamid Husain Al-Hindi Al-Lakhnawi.
He wrote a book a in Persian titled 'Abaqat-al-Anwar Fi Ithbati Imamat-al-A'immat-al-Athar. This book is spread over ten big volumes and has no comparison in its field right from the early Islam upto date. He refers to very authentic personalities quoting from their books which are dependable. Such a writing has never been seen or heard. He died in 1306 A.H.
50. As-Sayyid Nasir Husain was the son of As-Sayyid Hamid Husain referred to above. He continued the work started by his father and completed Abaqat al-Anwar.He died in 1361 A.H.