The Twenty-First Century Theory


 Knowledge Systems Thinking


Systems thinking is an important factor in solving global problems. The twentieth-century has witnessed the development of a systems paradigm and different spheres of systems knowledge. However, further development of systems thinking necessitates overcoming the contradictions between different schools and unifying them into a single systems conception. With this in mind, systems problems are examined in light of the theory of knowledge. It is suggested that the gnosiological definition of the notion ''system'' should be used as a basis for a single approach. An analysis of the concept ''system'' leads to a logically well-structured conception of system. It follows from this that, in addition to the general theory of systems and the systems science, a non-formal theory of whole object and non-formal systems logic should form part of the systems thinking. This would set the stage for a categorical structure and a conceptual basis for systems thinking. The development of systems thinking should be regarded as the key challenge in perfecting humanity. The elaboration of a single systems conception within the philosophy of science and the methodology of scientific knowledge should be treated as a basis for meeting this challenge.

Philosophy and science of the 21st century granted humankind one of the most important achievements of human thought - a systems paradigm in knowledge and the systems view of the world. Now the task is that all spheres of human activities be refracted through the prism of the systems viewing of reality, including interstate and state construction, production and consumption, and everyday life of individuals. Let us hope that this new quality of rationality, systems thinking will present the very magic crystal that, being looked through, will help humankind learn to avoid the mistakes that destroy our best undertakings by misleading us from the right track and threaten our very existence.

But in order to do that, a systems paradigm itself should find harmony.

Changes of a Paradigm of Knowledge in the Twentieth Century

The thirties and fifties of the 20th century marked a turning point in science and philosophy. Many outstanding intellectuals realised the mounting crisis. Numerous works contained a formulation of contradictions between the new goals of science and the methods available. It became obvious that the fragmentation of science and the tragic of absence of a common language lacked a perspective.

At the same time, several works, although not declaring a new paradigm, already became the sources that were filling up its stream (E. Husserl, A.S. Lotka, P.K. Anokhin, W. Weaver, N. Wiener and others). In Russia a project of "General Organising Science (Tektology)" was put forward (A.A. Bogdanov, 1913, 1922). But the success to advance an idea that would become a determining paradigm of the 20th century fell on L. von Bertalanffy (1945).

It was suggested to seek the settling of the crisis in the following directions:

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