IMĀM HASAN’S IMAMATE
Acquaintance with the KÅ«fiyÄns
Iraq has been an Islamic land that dominated over Islamic world throughout caliphate life for centuries and therein numerous important developments were embedded. With two cities of Basra and KÅ«fa it initially appeared under the name of â€œâ€˜ArÄqiyanâ€ and later with the appearance of BaghdÄd it played a more important role. The time we talk about is when it is still a hundred years left to BaghdÄd emergence. Basra, for years after the event of Djamal, was â€˜UthmÄnids.  Although it was somewhat moderated with the Muâ€˜tazilitesâ€™ (schismatic) penetration later. On the other hand, KÅ«fa has always been known as a Shiâ€˜ites center that did adhere to its belief during the Umayyadsâ€™s authority and later on. On different occasions this city has been â€œreproachedâ€ on the one hand and admired on the other, thus different judgments have been passed about the KÅ«fa people as follows,
A. These people on different occasions took different positions. Once they rose for defending Ahl al-Bayt and strengthened the â€˜Alawites with their courage and it was their assistance that helped ImÄm defeat NÄkithÄ«n. Yet, it was the last years of ImÄm â€˜AlÄ«â€™s caliphate when they hesitated to help him, so the gospel. Truth was defeated and the credal error won. Though many , later they left Hasan Ibn â€˜AlÄ« (a) helpless on his own as well. Such a tragedy was also repeated in Muharram 61. However, many of them under the name of TawwÄbÄ«n (the Penitents) repended and in a movement were martyred. Another group allied with MukhtÄr Ibn AbÄ« â€˜Ubayd to take revenge for ImÄm Husaynâ€™s assassin to show their Shiâ€˜ites stance. With not helping Zayd Ibn â€˜AlÄ« in 122 H. they proved their unfaithfulness to the â€˜Alawites.
B. The why of such contradictory judgments is the existence of various political and religious groups in the city. One group was the KhÄridjites,
 Musnad Ibn Djaâ€˜d, vol.I, p.527. the report was denied that QatÄda in the second century heard that there be a number in Basra who claimed that they considered â€˜AlÄ« superior to â€˜UthmÄn. â€œBy AllÄh, no resident before you had ever believed soâ€, he said.
another was somehow the Umayyadsâ€™ accomplice as the noble and the other group was the Shiâ€˜ite Muslims, Ahl al-Baytâ€™s devotees from among whom the righteous were praised for their right deeds and the wicked kept on until they murdered the prophetâ€™s son.
C. The existence of the tribes was also influential in peopleâ€™s quick stance changing. They went to extremes in their tribal prejudice so irrationally that they made rash decisions on any trivial affair. Mostly in favor of the tribes were the decisions, so they threatened the KÅ«fiyÄnâ€™s unity, exactly what the Umayyads took advantage of several times.
Here it looks essential that we get acquainted with the Iraqiâ€™s state on the threshold of Hasan Ibn â€˜AlÄ«â€™s Imamate. Were these people familiarized, the next developments in Iraq would be well comprehended.